As if Ukrainians can’t read them in the Russian original?
The general atmosphere became increasingly depressing. Forced collectivization, famine 1932-1933 pp. fell with a black wing not only on the Ukrainian village, but also on the whole nation. Mass repressions, political trials, the massacre of the intelligentsia, especially writers, began. Not many writers had the courage to follow the previously chosen path. However, V. Pidmohylny professed his principles to the end. References:
Everything for school: Ukrainian literature. Grade 10. Issue 11; History of Ukrainian literature of the XX century: Book. first / ed. V. Donchik. – K.: Lybid, 1998; Sherekh Yu. Man and people (“City” by Valerian Pidmohylny) // Yu. Sherekh. Not for children. – New York, ideas for narrative essay 1964; Movchan R. Prose of Valerian Pidmohylny. Fate. Man. Style. // Divoslovo. – 2000. −№ 1.
Landscape lyrics by Maksym Rylsky
The main mood of M. Rylsky’s lyrics … is determined by the feeling of joy that overwhelms a person, youthful love for the “new spring of humanity” in which the name of a person is so highly elevated, all the conditions for the development of his abilities are given.
Maksym Rylsky – poet, scientist, public figure – is one of the integral elements of this culture. The joy of creative work, deep patriotism, which combines ardent love for the Motherland with a living sense of friendship of peoples, international unity of workers around the world, a clear worldview, free from the dark remnants of psychology that arose in human exploitation – all these features of new people The Great October Socialist Revolution, completely inherent in the poet M. Rylsky. The book “On the White Islands” is interesting, first, as a contrast to most of the further books of the poet. For the Rila era of creative maturity is characterized by completeness of form, specificity of vocabulary, plasticity of images. Early poetry, on the other hand, is more like unfinished improvisation. This is the lyrics of “mood”. The lyrical hero of the book is a dreamer, always sad, tormented, first of all, by love (of course, undivided), like Heine in the Book of Songs. He is frightened by life, frightened by the night, crushed by “formidable walls” separating him from humanity. He is tormented by horrible dreams – some ghosts carry in black coffins his prematurely lost hopes. He sees living people from afar; it is “powerless slaves”: they hate something, love something, and perish like torn flowers. The image of someone strong, who called the people to fight, will flash between them from time to time. The poet himself sometimes wants to strike the sound strings, wake the sleeping and call them – but where? “In the distance” is still vague for the poet himself. The main mood of M. Rylsky’s lyrics is now determined by the feeling of joy that overwhelms a person, youthful love for the “new spring of humanity” in which the name of a person is so highly elevated, all the conditions for the development of his abilities are given. The collection “Kyiv” contains poems dedicated to the capital of prosperous Ukraine – Kyiv. Most of the poems in the collection are written in octaves, one of M. Rylsky’s favorite stanzas. He managed to fill this classic size with new relevant content. The poet is well acquainted with the history of Kyiv, and perhaps because of this he is particularly conspicuous by the changes that have taken place in the city over the years of five years. The poet understands that “our green Kyiv” became such because “it is red” that only the Soviet authorities brought a real spring to the Kyiv hills. M. Rylsky paints Kyiv not only as a city of beautiful buildings and parks, but as an industrial city, a city in which a bustling creative life abounds: And already on the banks of the Dnieper River Who did it? – Their names are Bolsheviks. For the first time in our poetry, the Kyiv collection gave a multifaceted image of the capital of Soviet Ukraine, a city so unrecognizably transformed by the Bolsheviks. Praising the joyful everyday life of socialist Kyiv, its relentless construction and expansion, lovingly noting in his poem such details as “black and blue smoke over the spring hem” “the spirit of fresh paint” the poet is proud that Kyiv is the brother of Moscow and others. Soviet cities – together with them builds a new joyful world: This world, surrounded by a celestial flag and broken through many human prisms, Sailed one way with Batumi and Moscow In the vast ocean called socialism. (“On the shore”) In the stanzas, where the intonations of Pushkin’s “Copper Horseman” (“I love you, Peter creation”) are felt, the poet expresses his love for everything that brought Soviet life to Kyiv: I love the variability of movements and faces, I love acquaintances sees in strangers, I love a child’s twittering thing, A family of workers in lazy mansions. Electricity intertwined night, Daytime vigor on night fatigue, And unanimous joys of efforts, And in a blue haze the car. (“Octaves”) The collection “Summer” (1936) is a further step in the creative growth of M. Rylsky. Far earlier, the poet dreamed of a “magnificent creative summer” and the very title of his new book now reveals its basic idea: this summer has come for all the people, and for the poet himself. Never before has life been so beautiful and rich, never before has man been so highly valued, never before have such wide creative possibilities opened up before him, never before has such a thirst for creativity, such a will to active intervention raged in people and in the poet himself to life with his artistic word. Rich and full-blooded poetic impressions of Soviet reality M. Rylsky embodied in concrete realistic drawings, among which a particularly prominent place is occupied by portraits of new people. Here is a boy-shepherd waving his hand to a passing train. This has happened before; trains raced past many such peasant boys, leaving behind clouds of smoke and vague dreams of some other, better life. But now this boy, growing up, has all the opportunities to realize his dreams – he will drive trains or become an engineer, will pave new paths. Here on the deck of the steamer, the old inventor, who once suffered a lot of ridicule from his inventions, shares with the poet his joy: he was listened to, understood, he manages to test his invention in practice (“Four Poems” ). I looked – until the snow lit up, And it seemed – it will melt at once. The flakes rested on her shoulder, And it seemed as if it were a diamond. The activity of MT Rylsky as a poet-translator deserves special attention, its significance has not yet been properly assessed. However, this is a new stage in the development of the Ukrainian language and in the development of Ukrainian culture in general. Both Russian reactionaries and Ukrainian liberals were particularly skeptical of translations of Russian poets into Ukrainian: why do it? As if Ukrainians can’t read them in the Russian original? MT Rylsky is credited with both the theoretical and practical destruction of these almost age-old prejudices. Back in 1938, working on his own translations of Pushkin and editing the translations of other authors, he wrote: “Ukrainian translations of Pushkin are absolutely necessary. This is, firstly, a way to bring Pushkin’s heritage closer to the broad masses of our people who think, speak and speak Ukrainian. therefore, translations are a springboard for further acquaintance with Pushkin’s work in the original, and, secondly, what a wonderful way to sharpen their language weapons, to raise the Ukrainian language culture to a higher stage of development ! Pushkin’s translations into Ukrainian enrich, therefore, Ukrainian language, Ukrainian poetry, literature in general “. M. Rylsky ages his work on poetic translations no lower than his original work. It is not only a competition of a poet of one nationality with a poet of another, it is also a persistent struggle with the material of the native language, the creation of new linguistic and, consequently, ideological values. It is these features that characterize Rylsky as a translator of Slavic poets – Pushkin, Mickiewicz, Slovak, Nekrasov, a genius poem created by Kievan Rus, “A Tale of Igor’s Regiment” and Serbian epic, French poets – Buale, Bualo, Correa Voltaire, Hugo, Rostan and others, as co-authors of the translators of the first part of Dante’s famous poem and Griboyedov’s comedy “Woe from the Mind” and the translator of many other ingenious and talented works of world literature. The task of poetic translation of the French classics of the 17th century with their mathematically accurate and full of abstract concepts language, periphrases, metonymies, antitheses, eloquence would seem impossible to the poets of the XIX century. But Rylsky overcame all these difficulties. He is able to reproduce these classics by means of his native language (as it is necessary to know it in all its inexhaustible lexical and stylistic richness!), To give in his native language the stinging irony of Voltaire (“The Virgin of Orleans” ), the clear clarity of Pushkin’s “Cyrano de Bergerac”), a variety of picturesque Mickiewicz. No matter what poet Rylsky translates, he always gives a highly poetic work, enriching the treasury of Ukrainian literature. Sometimes the difference in grammatical structure does not allow to give the original exactly. Then the poet skillfully changes the image without destroying it, as he himself put it in the article “The Translator’s Word” (1937). For example, Pushkin’s lines: Like a majestic moon, She shines among virgins and wives … Guided by a deep understanding of the ideological idea, spirit and style of the original, Rylsky widely uses the technique of creative compensation of the image, when images or characteristic stylistic inversions, published in one place of translation, are transferred to the next stanzas or lines. Many examples of this can be found in Rylsky’s outstanding creative achievements – translations of “Eugene Onegin” and “The Copper Horseman” by Pushkin and one of the greatest works of Polish literature, Mickiewicz’s epic novel “Mr. Thaddeus”. Rylsky began working on this translation in the 1920s. The first edition of the translation appeared in 1927 and was highly praised by Soviet and Polish critics. However, the poet did not dwell on this first version, worked on it for more than two decades and in 1948 released a new version, which without exaggeration can be considered the best of all translations of this work into foreign languages. Epic calm, vigilance of sight, which notices the smallest details of life, soft humor, richness of colors and sounds – all these features of Mickiewicz’s poem are reproduced in Rylsky’s translation with extraordinary skill.