Many people often get it wrong: Five golden rules for flavoring

She now largely refrains from using alcohol when cooking – and not just because she has children. But the children were the trigger to pay more attention to the alcohol content of the meals.

The professional cook felt very much like many amateur cooks, who ask themselves: Can wine be added to the sauce when the children are eating? Is an eggnog cake a good idea if a guest has health problems with alcohol? Or does the alcohol play no role because it is overcooking anyway?

These factors affect the alcohol content

"Unfortunately it’s not that easy"says Sascha Rohn, Professor of Food Chemistry at the University of Hamburg. "Theoretically, alcohol evaporates at 78.3 degrees. However, it is partially bound by the other ingredients and thus kept in the dish." Little research has been done on how the individual ingredients react with one another. Therefore, it is not possible to calculate how much residual alcohol is left from a glass of sherry in the sauce or from a liter of red wine in the stew when the food is finally on the table.

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A study by the University of Idaho (which, however, dates from 1992) provides at least some clues. The scientists examined six dishes: in braised meat that simmered for two and a half hours in the pot, only four percent of the originally added alcohol was detectable – in a Grand Marnier sauce, however, 85 percent.

"The cooking time plays a role, as does the temperature and the intensity of stirring. But there is no rule of thumb that can be used to estimate how much alcohol is consumed in what time"explains Rohn. The food chemist recommends: "Food prepared with alcohol should therefore not be offered to children, pregnant women and people suffering from alcoholism."

Alcohol in food is sometimes labeled hidden

A completely alcohol-free diet, however "can hardly be implemented", says Fabienne Kroening, social worker at the Blue Cross in Wuppertal. The Addiction Aid Association supports people at risk of addiction and those suffering from addiction and their relatives – the danger of alcohol in food is an issue again and again.

A surprising number of foods contain alcohol: sauerkraut or kefir, for example, as a result of a fermentation process, but also many finished products and confectionery. All ingredients must be listed on packaged items. The alcohol is sometimes hidden under names such as ethanol or ethyl alcohol.

This labeling requirement does not apply to unpackaged goods, such as a snack from the snack counter or from the bakery. In the case of beverages, the alcohol content must only be specified if it is higher than 1.2 percent by volume. If a beer contains less than 0.5 percent by volume, manufacturers may use it as "non-alcoholic" describe.

How dangerous alcohol is in food

Small traces of alcohol are not a health problem, "but if a food tastes like alcohol, it contains more than a trace of alcohol"says Kroening.

For people who are dependent on alcohol, the immediate risk of relapse is often not as high as assumed. "Mechanisms that lead to a relapse of alcohol are of a more diverse psychological nature and have more to do with one’s inner attitude and mental state than with the amount of alcohol actually absorbed into the body." Already the taste of alcohol caused by a flavoring could trigger addictive pressure in those affected.

Regardless of this, alcohol carries health risks. The German Central Office for Addiction Risks (DHS) recommends that women should not exceed twelve grams per day. That corresponds to a small glass of wine or a quarter of a liter of beer. For men, the limit is 24 grams per day. That equates to half a liter of beer, a quarter liter of wine or three small schnapps.123helpme

Refrain from alcohol and find alternatives

Cooking without alcohol is at best a subordinate topic in the training of young cooks, says Karl Haaf from the Association of German Chefs. Classic recipes such as a range of fish dishes, game or fricassee would still be prepared with wine. This does not have to be noted on the menu. If in doubt, the only thing that helps is to ask before ordering. "The person serving must be able to tell which dish does not contain alcohol"says Haaf.

But are there alternatives? Can the desired seasoning be achieved differently? "You should think about what tastes similar", advises cook Schönberger. "If the chocolate or cinnamon note in a wine is important to me, then I can use a piece of dark chocolate or a cinnamon stick."

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Grape juice is suitable for dark sauces. White balsamic vinegar can replace white wine and a grated apple adds acidity to the Bolognese sauce. "You just have to dare to try it out a bit"says Schönberger. "We are very frivolous with alcohol in cooking. I don’t think that’s up to date anymore."

Sources used: dpa news agency–>

Cold cucumber soup is the ideal dish for hot days. There are many varieties, from vegetarian to vegan. But cucumber is also great when hot. The most delicious recipes for cucumber soup.

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Recipe ► Cold cucumber soup with avocado recipe ► Cold cucumber soup with yogurt recipe ► Cold cucumber soup vegan recipe ► Warm cucumber soup

The main ingredient of all cucumber soups is, of course, cucumber. That is a good thing, because cucumbers are very healthy and consist largely of water, which is beneficial for the fluid balance, especially on hot days. Because cucumbers contain so much water – around 95 percent – 100 grams of raw cucumber contain only about twelve calories. So the cucumber was rightly named Vegetable of the Year in 2019.

What most cucumber soup recipes have in common is that they can be prepared super quickly and with little effort – provided you have a hand blender.

Recipe ► Cold cucumber soup with avocado

Avocado is not only delicious, but also healthy. In combination with cucumber and yoghurt, a wonderful soup can be conjured up.

Cucumber soup with avocado: This variant of the cucumber soup is particularly creamy. (Source: BaimonMaurice / Getty Images)

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Ingredients for cucumber soup with avocado (2 people)

Avocado, cucumber and yogurt form a harmonious trio in this cold soup. 

1 avocado1 mini cucumber2 spring onions1 lime150 g yogurtsaltpepper1 bunch of chives

Preparing the cucumber soup with avocado

Halve the avocado, remove the stone and peel and cut the pulp into cubes. Peel the cucumber and cut the vegetables in half lengthways, then scrape the seeds out with a spoon. Clean and wash the spring onions and cut them into large pieces. Squeeze out the lime, put the vegetables in a tall container along with two tablespoons of lime juice, vegetable stock, yogurt, salt and pepper and puree the ingredients with a blender. Then chill the cucumber soup with avocado for an hour. Before serving, garnish the delicious meal with chopped chives.

Recipe ► Cold cucumber soup with yogurt 

Many recipes for cucumber soup contain yogurt or cream cheese in addition to the basic ingredient cucumber. You can vary the seasoning as you like. Lemon provides that extra freshness kick. Many recipes cannot do without dill. Dill and cucumber go well together in the classic way.

Ingredients for cucumber soup with yogurt (4 servings)

2 cucumbers, 1-2 cloves of garlic, 2 tablespoons of olive oil, 800 g of yogurt or cream yogurt, salt, pepper, 1/2 teaspoon of sugar, 1 1/2 tablespoons of lemon juice, 1 bunch of dill

Preparation of cucumber soup with yogurt 

For decoration, cut off a piece of cucumber and set it aside, then cut the rest into large cubes. If you use organic cucumbers, you can just leave the peel on, otherwise you can peel the cucumber as well. The garlic is peeled and mashed together with the cucumber pieces, oil and yogurt. If the mixture is too reminiscent of porridge, you can also add a little water until the desired consistency is reached. Now season the cucumber soup with salt, pepper, lemon juice and sugar. Then distribute the soup on soup bowls or plates. Drinking glasses are also very suitable; wash the dill and shake it dry. Either you chop the rest of the cucumber into small cubes, or if you have, you can use a ball cutter to make small cucumber balls. Dill and cucumber pieces serve as a garnish. Put the soup in the cold for only one to two hours. If you prefer to eat straight away, you can add two to three ice cubes per serving to the soup.

Recipe ► Vegan cold cucumber soup

Of course, there are also many vegan versions of cucumber soup. For example, you can simply replace the yogurt in the recipe above with soy yogurt. However, the following recipe also works without yogurt.

Ingredients for vegan cucumber soup 

1 cucumber1 / 2 avocado1 stalk of celery1 spring onion1 clove of garlicJuice of 1/2 lime1 tablespoon virgin olive oil15 g basil1, 2 sprigs of dill, salt, pepper, water

Preparation of vegan cucumber soup

Wash the cucumber and cut into large pieces. Halve the avocado and loosen half of the pulp, coarsely chop. Clean the spring onions, wash the celery and roughly chop both. Peel the garlic. Put the vegetables in the blender along with the herbs, oil and some water. Puree everything creamy. Season to taste and mix again. You can either eat the soup immediately or leave it to steep in the refrigerator in a sealed container. Garnish the soup with cucumber, celery cubes and basil leaves.

Recipe ► Warm cucumber soup

For some people, soup has to be warm. It’s good that there are some recipes for warm cucumber soup too. The following impresses with few and inexpensive ingredients and quick preparation.

Ingredients for warm cucumber soup

1 cucumber, 50 grams of butter, 2 tablespoons of flour, 2 teaspoons of instant vegetable broth, and fresh dill

Preparation of warm cucumber soup

Melt butter in a saucepan, add the flour and fill the roux with about 300 milliliters of hot water. Everything has to be stirred quickly with the whisk. Then take the pot off the stove. Now comes the cucumber: cut it in half. Dice one half and chop the other half with a hand blender or a blender. Now the cucumber cubes are sweated in a little butter or olive oil. Finally, add the cucumber puree and cucumber cubes to the stock. Now season the soup with the chopped dill, salt and pepper. You can also add a few chilli flakes if you like. Healthy green: How do pickles, braised cucumbers and cucumber taste best Bitter substances: peel cucumber or not? Tips for processing vegetables Alpine butter, sweet cream & Co .: This type of butter has the highest quality

Good Appetite!

Sources used: https: //www.kuechengoetter.dehttps: //www.schuesselglueck.dehttps: //www.kochbar.de more sources show less sources–>

Berlin / Hanover (dpa / tmn) – Single parents often shoulder greater burdens, so there is a tax relief amount for them. This is taken into account via tax class II or the tax return.

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"This can also apply after the parents separate", explains Isabel Klocke from the Association of Taxpayers with a view to a judgment by the Lower Saxony Finance Court (Az .: 13 K 182/19).

A single father had sued in the dispute. His wife and mother of their daughters moved out of their marital home at the end of April 2017. In the year of separation, the parents opted for the individual assessment of income tax.

The relief amount is intended to compensate for additional costs

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The plaintiff asserted the relief amount for single parents for the period from May to December 2017, which the tax office did not accept. The father argued that unmarried parents can claim the relief amount as soon as the other parent moves out – and married couples should not have any disadvantage.

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The judges then agreed with the father: The relief amount for single parents should partially compensate for the additional costs of running the household alone. If one parent lives alone with the child without a partner, these additional costs are incurred and the relief amount is due to the single parent, the court ruled – provided that spouse splitting is waived.

Check appeal against tax assessment

The judgment is not yet final because the tax office has appealed to the Federal Fiscal Court (Ref .: III R 17/20). Affected parents who no longer want to use spouse splitting in their year of separation and instead choose the individual assessment should claim the tax relief amount in their tax return from the month after separation.

"This is currently particularly worthwhile, because due to the Corona crisis, the amount was more than doubled to 4008 euros", calculates Klocke. If the tax office rejects this, an objection to the tax assessment can be lodged and at the same time an application can be made for the proceedings to be suspended. To justify this, reference should be made to the revision procedure.

This radish dip brings freshness to the table. Ann-Kathrin and Christian von "The kitchen is on fire" came up with a recipe for t-online.de that is ready in just ten minutes.

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Ingredients: Radish Dip Preparation: Insider tip

This time we have prepared a summery, light dip that goes well not only with a snack, but also with grilling. We especially like the combination of the creamy consistency and the small pieces that bring a little crunch.

All recipes from "The kitchen is on fire" can be found here at an overview

Ingredients: radish dip

For four people you need:

–> 150 g cream cheese (none with yoghurt, it becomes too runny) 250 g fleur de sel cream cheese (alternatively normal cream cheese) 1 red pepper1 bunch of radishes1 handful of cress1 teaspoon smoked paprika powderSalt, pepperDecoration: radishes, cress

Ann-Kathrin and Christian love juicy steaks and quick recipes.